Resources - National

Germany

Marie Tallarek, Kayvan Bozorgmehr and Jacob Spallek (BMJ Global Health)

This article argues that pre-existing discrimination against asylum seekers and refugees has been exacerbated by COVID-19. "Inclusionary and diversity-sensitive approaches to public health  not only serve human rights but also contribute to better health for everyone."

Italy

Gianfrancesco Fiorini and eight colleagues, Journal of Public Health Research

This article argues that pre-existing discrimination against asylum seekers and refugees has been exacerbated by COVID-19. "Inclusionary and diversity-sensitive approaches to public health  not only serve human rights but also contribute to better health for everyone."

United Kingdom

Laurence Gruer and 10 colleagues, Journal of Public Health

This is the last analysis from Phase 4 of the Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study (SHELS). It examines rates of hospitalisations and deaths related to all infections and 15 different infection categories. It also looks at ethnic differences for serological diagnoses of HIV, HBV and HBC. The study demonstrates very varied, and sometimes enormous, ethnic differences, pointing to a complex mix of causative factors. The paper also provides a useful context for the recent findings of  higher rates of morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 among some ethnic minorities in the UK.

Emma M. Davidson, Anne Douglas, Nazmy Villarroel, Katy Dimmock, Dermot Gorman, Raj S. Bhopal.

Journal of Public Health

This article describes how the National Health Service in Lothian (the region in Scotland, UK, that includes Edinburgh) succeeded in increasing the recording of the ethnicity of patients attending hospital from 3% to 90% in three years. The focus is on attendances for Accidents and Emergencies.  This is an impressive achievement. However, another recent article from Scotland (below December 2019) shows that even if ethnicity recording rates are relatively high, they may not be enough to enable reliable comparisons between ethnic groups to be made.

S. Knox, RS. Bhopal, CS. Thomson, A. Millard, A. Fraser, L. Gruer, D. Buchanan

Journal of Public Health

This article analyses in-patient rates by ethnicity in Scottish Hospitals in 2013.  It reports that the completeness of ethnicity coding on hospital admission records was 76%, a marked improvement since 2010. However, the validity of admission rates based on these data was variable across ethnic groups and further improvements are required to support monitoring of inequality.

United States of America

This is a  complex, well-organised  website providing a wealth of quantitative data from twelve of  largest US cities, comparing cities, ethnic/racial groups within cities, neighbourhoods etc. Inequities abound in every dimension, showing in particular the way in which African American and Latinx/Hispanic communities have faired least well in the pandemic, but to a varying extent in different cities.

This is a collaboration between the Covid Tracking Project and the Boston University Center for Antiracism Research. It provides constantly updated data on Covid-19 cases and deaths by race and ethnicity in most US states and territories. 

This web encyclopaedia offers numerous articles about racism and health in the United States. It has a section devoted to Covid-19, including a link to the Covid Racial Data Tracker.

This report by the American Medical Association focuses on Latinx/Hispanic communities, who make up 18% of the US population but have had 33% of Covid-19 cases. It draws on information provided by 30-45 minute interviews with 16 people with knowledge and experience of how pre-existing circumstances have combined with the pandemic to impact on  Latinx communities. While arguably from too narrow a range of  spokespersons to give a complete picture, nevertheless the report achieves its aim of  providing "guidance in identifying and understanding the vulnerabilities, needs and opportunities present in the Latinx community in order to allow physicians, essential health care workers and health care organizations to serve this community in a more equitable manner."

Dolores Acevedo-Garcia and nine colleagues, Health Affairs

This study uses a composite metric to assess the neighbourhood conditions that children experience today across the US. Overall, the Child Opportunity Score for White children (73) was much higher than for Black (24) and Hispanic (33) children.  The authors conclude that to improve children’s health and well-being, the health sector must move beyond a focus on treating disease or modifying individual behaviour to a broader focus on neighbourhood conditions.

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